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聚焦土地整治:污染不容乐观 利用效率普遍不高

发布时间:2015-7-17 11:27:04 浏览次数:1008

2015年6月25日是我国第25个“全国土地日”,今年的主题是“节约集约利用土地推动土地利用方式根本转变”。

目前,我国城镇、农村存在大量闲置、低效利用土地已是不争的事实,不仅造成了稀缺的土地资源浪费,更为城镇化进程设置了大量障碍。同时,城乡建设用地利用率不高、经济发展建设占用大量耕地、土壤污染等仍是我国土地整治工作亟待解决的问题。今年6月初,国土部印发通知,正式启动“十三五”全国和省级土地整治规划编制工作。通知要求,全国土地整治规划在2015年年底前完成编制。业内表示,这项整体规划将令长期进展缓慢的城乡闲置土地高效利用工作加速,让此前各地探索的方式能尽快予以推广。《法制日报》记者走访相关专家,试图通过对法治国土建设的探讨,为推动土地整治工作进一步发展献计献策。

在我国现有的20亿亩耕地中,有超过3亿亩耕地处于15度以上的坡地或位于林区、草原以及河流湖泊最高洪水位控制线范围内,大部分需要退耕还林、还草、还湿和休养生息;

还有相当数量耕地受到中、重度污染,土壤点位超标率接近20%,大多不宜耕种;

全国土壤总超标率为16.1%,耕地土壤点位超标率为19.4%,调查的工业废弃地中超标点位占34.9%,工业园区中超标点位占29.4%。耕地土壤污染治理与修复需海量资金作为支撑;

……

这组来自于国土资源部土地整治中心发布的《土地整治蓝皮书:中国土地整治发展研究报告No.2》的数据,被诸多媒体评价为“触目惊心”。

“土地是支撑经济发展的基本要素,具有保障和约束双重作用,经济发展新常态必然带来土地利用和管理的重大趋势性变化。以土壤污染为例,其关系到国家食品安全,为全社会高度关注。”蓝皮书作者、国土资源部土地整治中心实施管理处处长贾文涛表示,面对经济下行压力,国务院出台了稳增长、促改革、调结构、惠民生的一系列政策措施,仍然是“稳”字当头,对土地的需求结构虽有变化但总需求仍然居高不下,土地管理工作面临着巨大的保障发展的压力。在经济发展新常态下,大力推进土地整治对破解保障发展和保护资源“两难”命题具有十分重要的意义。

经济发展建设占用大量耕地

一方面,我国人多地少、优质耕地少、后备资源少的基本国情没有发生根本性改变,粮食安全的基础仍不稳固,耕地保护面临的压力前所未有;另一方面,我国城乡建设用地利用效率普遍不高,闲置、废弃、低效利用土地大量存在,盘活利用潜力巨大。

这是国土资源部土地整治中心蓝皮书课题组对我国目前土地利用现状的评价。

“地方经济对建设用地的依赖程度巨大,耕地保护的形势更加严峻,加上一些地方耕地后备资源匮乏,要实现县域、市域内的占补平衡难度越来越大,占优补劣、占多补少的现象并不鲜见,尤其是优质连片的耕地资源没有得到积极主动的保护和改造提升。”国土资源部土地整治中心副主任郧文聚介绍说,长期以来,我国经济发展过度依赖投资拉动和资源的高消耗,建设占用了大量耕地。

据第二次全国土地调查,仅1996年“一调”至2009年“二调”的13年间,全国因建设占用、生态退耕、结构调整和灾毁减少耕地超过2亿亩,其中大多数是优质耕地,仅东南沿海5省就减少水田1798万亩,相当于减掉了福建省全省的水田面积。按照吨粮田的标准计算,相当于损失掉了180亿公斤的粮食产能。

在城市用地方面,则存在体系、结构性等诸多问题。以近年来备受社会关注的“鬼城”为例,就属于城市用地内部问题,需要在城市发展过程中依据阶段特征不断调整不合理的土地利用方式,全面提升城市品质。

城乡建设用地增减挂钩政策实施问题、农耕文化传承问题、乡镇企业土地利用粗放、防止农村土地过度资本化等,则是郧文聚等人发现的我国乡村目前面临的土地整治问题。

在如何进行土地利用这一问题上,郧文聚用了两个“最”字——坚持最严格的耕地保护制度和最严格的节约集约用地制度。

“我国长期面临土地资源紧约束,必须改变当前城市过度扩张、耕地和生态用地快速减少的不可持续发展态势,减少因土地利用不当引发的资源环境和民生问题。耕地红线要严防死守,保护耕地要像保护文物、保护大熊猫那样来做。要坚定不移地推进节约用地,真正管住总量、严控增量、盘活存量,切实优化土地的利用结构,提高土地利用效率。”郧文聚说,同时,更要认真审视耕地保护、城市发展、生态保护之间的关系,避免条块式的认知、管理方式。

土壤污染治理修复需海量资金

在郧文聚看来,我国目前面临着“不稳定”的耕地问题。

何谓“不稳定”?郧文聚的解释是,全国有14945万亩耕地位于东北、西北地区的林区、草原以及河流湖泊最高洪水位控制线范围内和25度以上陡坡,大部分需要退耕还林、还草、还湿和耕地休养生息;有相当数量耕地受到中、重度污染,大多不宜耕种;此外,还有部分耕地因开矿塌陷造成地表土层破坏、地下水超采,已影响正常耕种。

近年来,土壤污染特别是耕地污染问题因与经济社会发展和人们的日常生活息息相关,成为社会各界普遍关注的焦点。2014年4月《全国土壤污染状况调查公报》的发布,使得全社会对土壤污染问题的关注度迅速升温,土壤污染治理与修复成为今后相当长一个时期内一项艰巨繁重的重大历史性任务。

“党的十八大以来,党中央、国务院就土壤污染治理与修复作出一系列部署。2014年中央一号文件提出‘启动重金属污染耕地修复试点’。当年4月,国家正式启动重金属污染耕地修复综合治理工作,试点耕地面积170万亩,计划实施周期为三年至五年。”贾文涛说,耕地土壤污染对耕地质量等有何影响、是否应该将土壤污染因素纳入耕地质量等评价指标体系、纳入后的评价结果会对我国粮食安全产生哪些影响、污染耕地如何使用等,诸如这些土地问题都亟须研究解决。

同时,贾文涛坦言,我国耕地土壤污染治理与修复工作刚刚起步,发展较慢,还远未形成规模和产业化。

“总体上看,几个关键问题仍亟须破解。一是法治建设,二是规划引领,三是技术创新,四是标准规范,五是资金保障。”贾文涛说,特别是资金问题,我国土壤污染形势严峻,治理与修复绝非朝夕之功,需要海量资金做支撑。解决土壤污染修复治理所需资金问题,单靠政府是远远不够的,需要建立健全融资机制,强化污染主体责任,吸引社会和民间资本参与进来,保障土壤治理与修复工作稳步持续推进。

规划“不足”致土地整治恶性循环

土地整治是当前扩内需、稳增长、惠民生的重要举措。通过土地整治,可以有效改善农村基础设施、公共服务设施和综合人居环境,促进城乡公共服务均等化,拉动农村投资和消费需求。

然而,国土资源部土地整治中心蓝皮书课题组通过调研发现,国土规划存在的诸多问题正成为阻碍土地整治向前发展的“拦路虎”。

“目前,国土部门主要采取以土地利用总体规划为总纲、运用土地利用年度计划进行调整、由上至下层层落实的强管制型规划管理、实施方式。由于中短期实施型土地规划的长期缺位,注重操作性、注重地方政府施政意图的土地整治规划在土地规划体系中的定位不够清晰,以致地方政府及其国土部门在规划审批实施的主体、规划的约束性和引导性等方面有所混淆,造成部分基层土地整治规划依然按照粗线条、战略型、底线型规划编制,从规划任务设置、空间安排、建设标准等各方面都难以达到指导项目实施的要求,形成从认识不到位到编制不到位再到执行不到位的恶性循环。”郧文聚说,同时,受编制内容、审批机构、实施过程和监督方式等环节的影响,在项目申报立项、实施、验收的管理过程中,地方规划的引导、管制作用十分有限,有些地方甚至采取简单平均、“天女散花”的方式进行项目安排。

此外,郧文聚等人注意到,由于规划在耕地保护方面的强约束性,不少地方政府认为下达的任务重、要求高,影响地方发展;项目区农户则认为项目是形象工程,工程实施只按标准、规范,不符合实际、不结合产业发展、不解决民生需求就干不到农户心坎上,还会遗留不少问题;基层干部两头受气,领导不乐意、基层不愿意、群众不满意,相当程度上打击了地方的积极性。

立法层次不高法律效力较低

土地整治法治建设有待补齐短板

1998年修订的土地管理法第四十一条规定“国家鼓励土地整理”,这是我国首次在法律层面对土地整理作出明确规定,虽然只是原则性的规定,但迈出了土地整治法制化的关键一步。

自此以后,我国在土地整治方面的法律法规开始从无到有,矿产资源法、农业法、森林法、水土保持法等法律中也开始针对土地整治作出相关规定。

“目前,我国已从法律、行政法规、部门规章等方面对土地整治工作进行了规范,土地整治法制建设已取得初步成就,但还存在不少问题。”国土资源部土地整治中心蓝皮书课题组成员、国土资源部土地整治中心工程师任佳注意到,目前,我国土地整治相关规定散见于各种法律法规、政策文件中,缺乏专门的、适用于全国范围的土地整治法律法规。在土地整治实践中,解决具体问题的依据多为政策文件,存在立法层次不高、法律效力较低等问题。同时,部分法律法规、政策文件之间还存在冲突,不利于土地整治工作的开展。

此外,国土资源部土地整治中心蓝皮书课题组发现,由于相关部门在农田建设方面的职能存在交叉重叠现象,职能界定不清对土地整治的冲击和制约越来越大。

“在土地整治实践中,还存在程序不完备、运作不规范等问题。土地整治各个环节的具体操作流程还不完善,部分程序过于繁琐,不符合实际操作需求,导致土地整治项目实施进度缓慢。”任佳说,土地整治相关规定内容还不够完善:土地整治公众参与的形式、程序和内容缺乏具体规定,公众参与的法律地位难以保障;土地整治行业管理相关制度尚未建立,行业管理混乱;土地整治后期管护的相关规定还不够健全,管护主体的权利与义务、管护的任务与目标均未明确,同时缺乏对管护资金的规定。

对此,任佳建议,在国家层面,应加快土地管理法的修订进度,设立土地整治专章。同时,要加快制定土地整治专项法规,对土地整治工作的主要内容和重大问题作出更加细化的规定。另外,针对土地整治工作的关键内容制定实施细则,指导实际操作。在地方层面,要根据上位法的规定,积极制定或修改土地整治地方性法规和地方政府规章。

“土地整治影响范围广、触及利益深,开展这项工作既要明确规定涉及任务内容、程序方法的制度规范,又要妥善解决有关资金筹措、权属调整等重大问题,需要强有力的法治保障。”对此,国土资源部土地整治中心副主任郧文聚建议,近些年来,土地整治的综合成效日益显现,但法治建设的短板也不断凸显,法治建设滞后于实践发展的需要。要尽早出台土地整治法或土地整治条例及其配套法规,依法规划,依法实施土地整治探索,依法解决纠纷冲突,依法规范各类土地整治活动。


On June 25, 2015, is China's 25 "national arable land", this year's theme is "fundamental changes to the way of economical and intensive use of land to promote land use".

At present, the town, the country has plenty of spare, inefficient use of land is tangible, not only caused the waste scarce land resources, the more urbanization set a lot of obstacles. At the same time, the construction land utilization rate is not high, the economic development in urban and rural areas take up a lot of arable land, soil pollution is still a problem to be solved our country land management work. In early June this year, the ministry issued by the notice, "much starker choices-and graver consequences-in" the launch of the national and provincial land reclamation planning work. Notice requires that the national land renovation plan completed by the end of 2015. The industry said that the overall plan will make long slow progress of urban and rural land efficient utilization of idle work speeds up, let around after exploring ways to be promoted as soon as possible. The legal daily reporter visited relevant experts, through the rule of law of the construction of the homeland, to promote further development of zhenhai land management work.

Existing 2 billion mu of arable land in our country, there are more than 300 million mu of arable land in slope more than 15 degrees or lakes, forest, grassland and river flood level highest line within the scope of most need returning farmland to forest, grassland, wet and rest;

There are quite a number of cultivated land by medium and severe pollution, soil point which is close to 20%, the most unfavorable farming;

National soil total which was 16.1%, the soil point which was 19.4%, the survey of the industrial wasteland in overweight point (34.9%), industrial park of overweight level accounted for 29.4%. Farmland soil pollution control and repair need huge amounts of money as a support,

......

This set comes from the land management center issued by the ministry of land and resources of the land reclamation blue book: China's land management development research report No. 2, by many media as "alarming".

"Land is the basic elements of supporting economic development, the dual function with security and constraints, and bring new normal economic development trend of land use and management of significant changes. Soil pollution, for example, its relationship to the national food safety, for the attention of the whole society." Blue book authors, the ministry of land and resources, land management center to implement management office director wen-tao jia said, in the face of economic downward pressure, introduced a steady growth of the state council, promoting the reform, restructuring, a series of policies and measures of the livelihood, is still a "steady" the word pledge, although demand for land structure has change but aggregate demand remains high, land management work faces enormous pressure. Under the new normal economic development, vigorously promote the development of land reclamation to crack the security and protect resources "dilemma" proposition is of great significance.

Construction takes up a large number of cultivated land of economic development

On the one hand, our country people much less, the quality of cultivated land, less reserve resources, the basic national conditions no less fundamental change, food security is still not solid, the basis of cultivated land protection face unprecedented pressure; , on the other hand, China's urban and rural construction land use efficiency is generally not high, idle and waste, inefficient use of land abounds, revitalize the use of huge potential.

This is the ministry of land and resources of land regulation center blue book research on the evaluation of the present situation of land use in China.

"The local economy a huge reliance on construction land, cultivated land protection situation more severe, and some local shortage of reserve cultivated land resources, to implement the county, district within the difficulty of dynamic balance is more and more big, the dominant carrier, accounting for more than less tonic phenomenon is not uncommon, especially high quality continuous cultivated land resources have not been active protection and transform and upgrade." The ministry of land and resources, deputy director of land reclamation center Yun wen said, for a long time, China's economic development relying too much on investment and the high consumption of resources, construction takes up a large amount of arable land.

According to the second national land survey, only "time" of 1996 to 2009 of the 13 years, the country because of the construction projects, ecological farmland, structural adjustment and disaster reducing arable land, more than 200 million acres, most of which are of high quality cultivated land, only 5 provinces will reduce paddy field along the southeast coast of 17.98 million mu, is equivalent to decrease the paddy field area of fujian province. Calculated according to the standard one, which is equivalent to lost 18 billion kilograms of grain production.

In the aspect of urban land, the system, structural, and many other problems. With highly social attention in recent years "ghost towns" as an example, it is an internal problem, urban land need to constantly adjust the phase characteristics in the process of urban development and unreasonable land utilization way, comprehensively enhance the quality of city.

Urban and rural construction land increase or decrease hook policy implementation problems, farming culture inheritance, township and village enterprises and extensive land use, prevent excessive capitalization of rural land, etc., are Yun text clustering and others found that the current land management problems in rural areas.

On the question of how to carry out land use, Yun culture together with the two "most" word, adhere to the strictest arable land protection system and the system of economical and intensive land use strictly.

"For a long time in China is facing a tight constraints on land resources, must change the current urban over-expansion, arable land and ecological land quickly reduce unsustainable development situation, reduced due to the improper land use caused by resources and environment and people's livelihood problem. Red line to defend, protect arable land, like the protection of cultural relics, protect the giant panda to do like that. Must unswervingly promote economical use of land, real total control, strict controls of incremental and revitalize the stock, to optimize the land use structure, improve the efficiency of land use." Yun wen said, at the same time, look more carefully cultivated land protection, the relationship between the urban development, ecological protection, to avoid such type of cognition, management style.

Soil pollution repair need huge amounts of money

In Yun article seems, at present our country faced "unstable" problem of cultivated land.

What is "unstable"? Yun text explanation is that, there are 149.45 million mu of arable land is located in the northeast, northwest region of forest, grassland and the rivers and lakes the highest flood level within the scope of control line and more than 25 degrees slope, most need to returning farmland to forest, grassland, wet land and the rest, and also There are a number of cultivated land by medium and severe pollution, most unfavorable farming; In addition, there are some land caused by mining subsidence land topsoil destruction, groundwater, has affected normal farming.

In recent years, soil pollution, especially the cultivated land pollution problems due to related to economic and social development and People's Daily life, become the focus of widespread attention from all walks of life. In April 2014, the national soil pollution condition investigation gazette published, make whole society attention rapidly warming on soil pollution, soil pollution control and repair will be a huge burden for quite a period of great historic task.

The 18th party congress ", the CPC central committee and the state council on soil pollution control and restoration to make a series of deployment. The central file no. 1 in 2014 'to start the heavy metal pollution of farmland restoration pilot. April, national work integrated treatment of heavy metal pollution of farmland restoration, the launch of pilot of cultivated land area of 1.7 million mu, the project implementation cycle for three years to five years." Wen-tao jia said, farmland soil pollution etc. What is the difference to the quality of cultivated land, whether soil contamination factors should be included in cultivated land quality evaluation index system, included in the evaluation results will have what effect to our country food security, pollution, such as arable land, how to use, such as the land is research solve all problems.

At the same time, wen-tao jia said, farmland soil pollution control and restoration work has just started in China, development is slow, scale and industrialization is still far behind.

"Overall, several key problems still need to crack. It is the rule of law construction, 2 it is to lead, 3 it is technology innovation, four is the standard specification, five is funding." Wen-tao jia said, especially the money problem, grim situation of soil pollution in our country, management and restoration is not one day work, need huge amounts of money to do. Solve the problem of the funds required for the soil pollution repair, by the government alone is not enough, the need to establish and improve the financing mechanism, strengthen the pollution of main body responsibility, attract social and private capital to participate, security management and repair work steadily advance the soil.

Planning "inadequate" vicious circle of land regulation

Land reclamation is currently expanding domestic demand, steady growth, the livelihood of the important measures. By controlling the land, can effectively improve rural infrastructure and public service facilities and comprehensive living environment and promote the equalization of public service between urban and rural areas, rural investment and consumption demand.

Land, however, the ministry of land and resources management center blue book group through the research found that some problems in land planning is becoming a "obstacle" for the further development of land management forward.

"At present, the department is mainly take general land use planning as the master plan, using the annual land use plan adjustment, from top to bottom layers of implementation of the regulatory planning management, the implementation way. Due to the short to medium term ShiShiXing long-term absence of land planning, pay attention to practical, pay attention to local government policy intention of land reclamation planning in the land planning system of positioning is not clear, so that the local government and the department of homeland in the body of the planning and implementation of examination and approval, planning, binding and instructive somewhat confused, cause some basic land renovation plan still in accordance with the thick line, strategic, bottom line planning, from planning task set, space arrangement, construction standard and so on various aspects are difficult to meet the requirements of guidance project implementation, the formation of recognition, not enough to prepare the does not reach the designated position from a vicious cycle of execution does not reach the designated position." Yun wen said, at the same time, the contents and the way of examination and approval organization, implementation and supervision link, the influence of the project declare establish-project, implementation and management process, the local planning guidance and control effect is very limited, some places even take simple average, "split" in a way that the project schedule.

In addition, Yun gather and others note that due to the strong binding planning in the aspect of cultivated land protection, many local governments think of heavy task, demanding high, influence the local development; The farmers that project is the image project, the project according to the standard, specification, only do not conform to the actual, combined with industry development, meet the needs of the livelihood of the people can't do farmers hearts, also left a lot of problems; Grassroots cadres and suffer indignities at both ends and not willing to, at the grass-roots level is not willing to, the masses are not satisfied, hit the enthusiasm of local considerably.

Low legislative level is not high legal effect

To supplement the short board land renovation of the rule of law construction

The 1998 revision of the land management law article 41 regulations "the state encourages land consolidation", this is the first time in our country in the aspect of law for land consolidation make that clear, although only principled provisions, but took a key step in land management legalization.

Since then, in the aspects of land management laws and regulations in our country started from scratch, mineral resources, farming, forest law, soil hold down has started for land reclamation in law, such as to make relevant regulations.

"At present, our country has gone from aspects such as laws, administrative regulations and departmental rules on land reclamation work specification, land regulation and the legal system has made the preliminary achievement, but there exist some problems." The ministry of land and resources land regulation center blue book group members, the ministry of land and resources management center engineer Ren Jia noticed that at present, our country land management rules referring to various kinds of laws and regulations, policy documents, the lack of specialized, applicable scope of the national land management laws and regulations. In land management practices, the basis for policy to solve the problem of specific files, there are legislative level is not high and the low legal effect problem. At the same time, some laws and regulations, policy, there is conflict between documents, does not favor the land management work.

In addition, the ministry of land and resources of land regulation center. Blue team found that due to the related department to exist in the functions of the construction of farmland and overlapping phenomenon, indistinct definition function of the impact of land reclamation and restriction is more and more big.

"In the land management practice, there are procedures incomplete, problems such as nonstandard operation. Land management each link of the concrete operation process is not perfect, part of an abstruse, does not conform to the practical operation demand, lead to land reclamation project implementation progress slowly." Ren Jia said, land management regulations is not perfect enough: public participation in the form of land regulation and the procedure and content of the lack of specific provisions, the legal status of public participation is difficult to guarantee; Land reclamation industry management system has not yet been established, industry management confusion; Late land reclamation management is not perfect enough, the relevant provisions of the main body of the rights and obligations of the management, the management tasks and goals are not clear, at the same time, the provisions of the lack of funds of the management.

Ren Jia Suggestions about it, at the national level, should accelerate the revision of land management law, set up the land management discussed. At the same time, to speed up the special regulations for land reclamation, main content and major issues of land reclamation work more detailed provisions. On the other hand, work out detailed rules for the implementation of the key contents in the management of land management, to guide practical operation. At the local level, according to the regulation of host law, actively develop or modify the land regulation local regulations and local government regulations.

"Land management scope wide, deep touch the interests, the content of the job should make clear a regulation involves the task specification, application methods of system, and properly solve important problems, such as financing, ownership adjustments need strong legal support." To this, the ministry of land and resources, deputy director of land reclamation center Yun gather Suggestions, in recent years, land management becomes increasingly comprehensive results, but short board also unceasingly highlighting of the construction of the rule of law, the rule of law construction lags behind the needs of the development of practice. To come as early as possible land management law or land management regulations and related laws and regulations, in accordance with the planning and implementation of land management in accordance with the law to explore, in accordance with the law to solve conflicts and disputes in accordance with the specifications of various types of land management activities.


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