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房屋建筑结构的组成及分类有哪些?

发布时间:2015-9-1 10:00:33 浏览次数:644
(一)房屋建筑结构的组成
房屋建筑结构通常由基础、承重墙、承重柱、楼板屋盖等结构构件所组成。
(二)房屋建筑结构的分类:
按建筑结构所用的材料分为:
钢结构——以钢材为主制作的结构;木结构——以木材为主制作的结构;砌体结构(砖石结构)——以砌块(砖块、石块和各种预制块)与砂浆结合而成的结构;混凝土结构——以混凝土(钢筋混凝土、预应力混凝土)为主制作的结构。
按房屋承重结构的类型分为:

砖混结构——竖向承重构件以砖墙、砖柱为主,水平承重构件以钢筋混凝土梁、板为主的构件。如目前存在的多层砖混住宅楼即为此类结构;砖木结构——竖向承重构件以砖墙、砖柱(或木柱)为主,水平承重构件(楼面梁、楼阁栅、楼板)和屋盖结构以木料为主的结构;框架结构——由竖向承重构件“柱”和水平承重构件(纵梁、横梁)连接而成的整体的平面或空间、单层或多层的结构;框架剪力墙结构——在框架结构纵、横方向的适当位置,在柱与柱之间增加几道钢筋混凝土墙,用来承担地震荷载和风荷载作用下的水平剪力;剪力墙结构——由纵横向钢筋混凝土墙组成的结构,该墙除抵抗水平地震作用和竖向荷载外,还对房屋起着围护和分隔作用;筒体结构——用钢筋混凝土墙围成侧向刚度很大的像筒一样的结构体系,在筒壁上开洞的叫空腹筒或框筒,为了建更高层的建筑可用筒中筒结构。



(a) the structure of the building

Building structures are usually made of foundation, the main wall, bearing column, floor roof structures.

(2) the classification of building structure:

According to the materials used in the building structure is divided into:

The structure of the steel structure, give priority to with steel production; The structure of the wood - is given priority to with lumber production; Masonry structure (brick) - to block (brick, stone and all kinds of precast block) combined with mortar and structure; - concrete structure is given priority to with concrete (reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete) the structure of production.

By building the type of bearing structure is divided into:

Brick structure, the vertical bearing component is given priority to with brick wall, brick column, horizontal bearing component is given priority to with reinforced concrete beam and plate components. As the existing multi-story brick residential building is such structure; Brick structure, the vertical bearing component is given priority to with brick wall, brick column (or upon), horizontal bearing component (GeShan floor beams and floor, floor), and the structure of the roof structure is given priority to with wood; Frame structure, by vertical bearing component "column" and level bearing component (longitudinal beam, beam) connection into a whole plane or space, single or multi-layer structure; Frame shear wall structure, the appropriate placement of the longitudinal and lateral direction of frame structure, in to add a few wall of reinforced concrete column and column, used to bear the horizontal shear under seismic load and wind load; Shear wall structure - a structure composed of vertical and horizontal to the reinforced concrete wall, the wall except to resist horizontal seismic action and vertical load, also plays a role of the palisade and separated for housing. Tube structure, lateral stiffness of reinforced concrete walls with large like a drum structure system, the open hole in the wall of call hollow tube or casing tube, in order to build more high-rise buildings available tube in tube structure.


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