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高层及超高层钢结构

发布时间:2015-9-11 9:22:31 浏览次数:607
 由于人类文化生活不断提高,对高层、大跨度建筑的要求也就越来越高。而钢结构本身具备自重轻,强度高,施工快等独特优点,因此对高层、大跨度,尤其是超高层、超大跨度,采用钢结构更是非常理想。目前世界上最高,最大的结构采用的都是钢结构,而历届奥运会的场馆也多采用钢结构。世界上目前已经建成的几个纯钢结构建筑为目前世界上最高的超高层建筑,它们是:
1931年建成的102层、高381m的美国纽约帝国大厦(1969年以前一直是最高的);
1969年建成的110层、高417m的美国纽约世界贸易中心(南北两座);
1970年建成的110层、高443m的美国芝加哥西尔斯大厦;
    1996年建成的高450m的马来西亚双塔石油大厦(KLCC,号称目前世界最高,但美国的西尔斯大厦有异议);
我国于1997年建成的上海金茂大厦为95层,建筑高度421m,结构高度395m,也跻身于世界最高行列。如果上海浦东环球金融中心大厦(95层460m)建成,则堪称世界最高,实为我国一大光荣。深圳赛格广场大厦70层、高279m,为世界上最高的全部采用钢管混凝土的超高层建筑,这又是我国的一大光荣。

    巨型钢结构为高层或超高层建筑的一种崭新体系,它是为了满足特殊功能或综合功能而产生的。它具有良好的建筑适应性和潜在的高效结构性能,是一种很有发展的结构。如日本千叶县43层、高180m的NEC大楼,该建筑内部布置大开口和大空间庭院,其巨型结构是由四根巨型结构柱和四个巨型的空间桁架梁组成的巨型空间桁架体系。经分析,这种体系具有极强的抗推刚度。另一例是德国法兰克福1997年建成的商业银行新大楼,63层、高298.74m,也是欧洲最高的一栋超高层建筑。该建筑平面为边长60m的等边三角形,其结构体系是以三角形顶点的三个独立框筒为“巨型柱”,通过八层楼高的钢框架为“巨型梁”连接而围成的巨型筒体系,具有极好的整体效应和抗推刚度,其中“巨响梁”产生了巨大的“螺旋箍”效应。第三例是日本拟建的动力智能大厦(DIB-200),高800m,地上200层,地下7层,总建筑面积150万m2,由12个巨型单元体组成。每个单元体是一个直径50m、高50层(200m)的框筒柱,1~100层设4个柱,101~150层设3个柱,151~200层设1个柱,每50层设置一道巨型梁。结构上设有主动控制系统,进一步削弱地震反应。香港汇丰银行也属于一巨型钢构大厦,是诺尔曼。福尔特设计的。



Because of human cultural life constantly improve, demand for high-level, large span construction is more and more is also high. And steel structure itself has light weight, high strength and fast construction of unique advantages, therefore to the high-level, large span, especially tall, large span, the steel structure is more ideal. The highest in the world today, the biggest structure is steel structure, and the Olympic stadium is used more steel structure. At present has built a few pure steel structure building in the world as the world's tallest high-rise buildings, they are:

Built in 1931, 102, 381 m high in the United States the Empire State Building in New York (1969 years ago has been the highest);

Built in 1969, 110, 417 m world trade center, New York City, USA (north and south two);

Built in 1970 110 layers, the sears tower in Chicago, 443 m high;

Built in 1996 450 m's petronas towers oil tower (KLCC, boasts the world's highest at present, but the object to the sears tower);

Shanghai jinmao tower was built in 1997 in China to 95 layer, building height of 421 m, structure level 395 m, is the highest in the world. If the pudong district of Shanghai world financial center building built layer (95, 460 m), the highest in the world, it is a big honor of our country. Shenzhen seg plaza, building 70 layer, height of 279 m, is the highest in the world are all made of steel tube concrete tall building, it is a big honor of our country.

Giant steel structure for top or super-tall building a new system, it is in order to satisfy the special function or comprehensive function. It has good adaptability and potential efficient structure performance, is a development of the structure. 43 layer, such as Japan chiba prefecture NEC building height of 180 m, the large openings and large space buildings interior layout courtyard, the giant structure is made up of four large structure of space truss beam column and four giant giant space truss system. By the analysis of the system with strong push stiffness. Another example is the new building was built in 1997 in Frankfurt, Germany's commercial Banks, 63, 298.74 m high, the highest in Europe a high-rise building. The architectural plane for 60 m length of an equilateral triangle, its structure is based on the triangle vertices of three independent frame drum for "giant column", through eight floors steel frame for the "mega beam connection of giant tube system, has excellent overall effect and push the stiffness, the" noise "liang has a huge" spiral hoop "effect. The third case is the power of Japan plans to build intelligent building (DIB - 200), 800 m high, 200 floors on the ground, underground layer 7, a total construction area of 1.5 million m2, is made up of 12 giant cell body. Each unit is a diameter of 50 m, 50 floors (200 m) of the cylinder, four columns 1 ~ 100 layers, layer 3 columns, 101 ~ 150, 151 ~ 200 floor or a column, every 50 layer set a mega beam. Structure with active control system, further weaken the seismic response. HSBC also belong to a giant steel structure building, is Norman. Foer's design.


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