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寿县合兴钢结构浅谈大跨度钢结构

发布时间:2015-9-12 9:22:05 浏览次数:678
大跨度或较大跨度大都采用钢结构,当然也有用“膜”完成的,但充气膜由于一些缺点近年来很少用,张力膜则也需要钢索和钢杆的支撑。
    大跨度钢结构多用于多功能体育场馆,会议展览中心,博览馆,候机厅,飞机库等。最早跨度最大的平板网架是60;年代美国洛衫矶加里福尼亚大学体育馆91m×122m(正放四角锥)。最大的双层网壳是70年代也是在美国建造的休斯敦宇宙穹顶(Astrodome,直径196m)及新奥尔良超级穹顶(Superdome,直径207m)。
    90年代在日本名古屋又兴建了当今世界上最大跨度的单层网壳,建筑直径229.6m,结构直径187.2m,采用三向网格,节点为能承受轴力和弯矩的刚性节点。世界上最大的室内体育馆是美国1996年奥运会的主体育馆棗亚特兰大体育馆(拟椭圆形平面,186m×235m),采用的是张拉整体体系的屋盖,主要由索、杆、膜组成,是当今最有发展前途的一种新型空间结构。1993年日本建成的福冈体育馆,直径222m,是当今最大的开合钢结构屋顶,而使1989年建成的加拿大多伦多天空穹顶(直径203m),降为世界第二跨度最大的开合结构。超过300m的屋盖结构全部使用钢板和型钢组成,并不是最优方案,近年来研究较为成功的是杂交(混合)结构,即杆、索、膜混合使用。
   最为典型的例子就是千禧之年世纪之交的千年穹顶,1997年6月开始拟建,仅用一年时间施工,1998年6月举行升顶仪式,该馆位于英国伦敦泰晤士河南岸格林尼治,是当今世界跨度最大的屋盖,穹顶酷像飞碟,直径320m.穹顶由12根包括10m支座在内的高100m桅杆塔柱(柱本身90m)通过总长度70km的钢缆绳悬挂起来的,桅杆塔柱布置在直径200m圆周上。穹顶网格由72根成对径向索和7根环向索做成。穹顶高50m,中间设有中心索桁架和70m直径环,上覆盖144块双层巨幅白色涂以特福隆(Teflon)的玻璃纤维布。工程总面积8万m2,总预算7.58亿英镑。馆内将以“标新立异时代”为主题举行展览会以迎接21世纪的到来。馆内设有“人体探秘”、“时光课堂”、“金融之窗”、“地球奇迹”、“展望未来”等12个展区。当然,从理论角度讲,跨度再大的结构也是有可能实现的,为此,日本、美国学者和研究单位都在进行研究。如1959年富勒曾提出建造一个直径3.22km的短程线网壳,覆盖纽约市第23-59号街区,网壳重8万t.日本巴组铁工所曾提出跨度200m、500m及1000m网壳蓝图,其中500m为全天候多功能体育娱乐活动厅,1000m为创造理想未来城市,体现工作、居住、娱乐一体化的丰富日常生活环境。
     虽然这种设想在现实当中能否实现还有待于深入研究,但在桥梁方面,1000m左右跨度已经实现,世界上跨度最大的斜拉索桥为日本的多多罗大桥全长为890m;最大的悬索桥为日本的名石大桥(1991m),公路铁路两用最大跨度桥为香港的青马大桥(悬索桥1377m)。世界最早的双曲抛物面悬索屋盖是著名的美国雷里竞技馆。另外历届奥运会、博览会等都可以显示桥梁钢构的发展水平。如1972年德国慕尼黑(覆盖7.48万m2体育场的索网建筑群),1976年加拿大蒙特利尔,1980年莫斯科,1984年美国洛杉矶,1988年韩国汉城(120m直径体操馆及93m直径击剑馆都是索穹顶),1992年西班牙巴塞罗那圣乔地体育馆(128m),1996年美国亚特兰大乔治亚穹顶(186m×235m索穹顶)。2000年澳大利亚悉尼主体育场(11万人,两个220m×70m的双曲抛物面网壳)。
    机场和机库都属于大跨度结构,在工程中基本上也都采用钢结构。如英国伦敦希思罗机库(一、二期)应是规模比较大的工程。而我国近年来建成的首都机库(2-153m×90m)采用三层斜放四角锥网格、焊接球节点平板网架,其跨度规模之大,在国际上是数一数二的,这是我国在钢结构方面的又一大殊荣。机场的钢结构屋盖由于建筑上的要求比较高,更是绚丽多彩。香港机场、马来西亚机场都采用大面积单体网壳形式。
    目前,国际上以及我国都在流行一种波浪形曲面,树状支承以及直接交汇的相贯节点的立体桁架体系。看起来雄壮而美观。我国深圳机场、首都机场、上海浦东机场就是典型的例子。



Large span or larger span mostly adopts steel structure, of course, useful "membrane", but the inflatable membrane due to some disadvantages is seldom used in recent years, the tension membrane is also needs the support of wire rope and steel rod.

Large-span steel structure for more multi-purpose sports venues, conference and exhibition center, exhibition hall, terminal, hangar, etc. One of the largest span earliest flat rack is 60; S the United States Los Angeles California university gymnasium 91 m by 122 m (are four pyramid). The biggest double-layer reticulated shell is Houston is built in the United States in the 70 s the universe dome (Astrodome, 196 m diameter) and New Orleans super dome (Superdome, 207 m) in diameter.

In Nagoya, Japan in the 90 s and built the largest span in the world of single-layer reticulated shells, the diameter of 229.6 m, building structure is 187.2 m in diameter, using three-way grid, node is able to bear axial force and bending moment of rigid nodes. The world's largest indoor stadium is the 1996 Olympic Games main stadium of Atlanta stadium (quasi elliptic plane, 186 m (235 m), the is the roof of tensegrity system, mainly composed of rope, rod, membrane, is the development of today's most promising a new type of space structure. In 1993, the Japanese built in fukuoka gymnasium, diameter of 222 m, is one of the largest steel structure roof opening today, and make the 1989 built in Toronto, Canada (203 m) in diameter, the sky dome to span the world's second largest movable structure. The roof structure of more than 300 m all use of steel plate and steel, the optimal solution is not, in recent years, the research is more successful hybridization (mixed) structure, namely, rod, cable, membrane mixed use.

The most typical example is the year of the millennium dome in one thousand at the turn of the century, began in June 1997, proposed construction in only one year time, jack ceremony is held in June 1998, the museum is located in the Thames Greenwich, London is one of the largest roof span in the world today, dome and cool like a flying saucer, diameter of 320 m. dome by 12 root, including 10 m bearing 100 m high mast pillar (90 m) column itself through a total length of 70 km of steel rope hanging up, the mast pillar arrangement on a 200 m diameter circle. Grid by 72 pairs of radial cable dome and 7 root ring to the rope. Dome 50 m high, intermediate with center and 70 m cable truss ring diameter, covering 144 pieces of double coated with huge white fulong (Teflon) of glass fiber cloth. Project with a total area of 80000 m2, total budget of 758 million pounds. The museum will be held in "new age" as the theme exhibition to celebrate on the eve of the 21st century. The museum has a "road" the human body, "time class", "window of the financial", "the miracle" earth, "looking to the future" and other 12 exhibition area. Of course, from a theoretical point of view, again big span structure is also possible, for this, scholars and research institutes in Japan, the United States to study. Such as the 1959 fuller has proposed to build a short line net shell 3.22 km in diameter, covered in New York City - 23, blocks, 59, net shell weighed 80000 t. Japan had offered by the group blacksmith span 200 m, 500 m and 500 m net shell blueprint, of which 500 m for all-weather multi-functional sports recreation hall, 1000 m to create the ideal city of the future, work, living, entertainment integrated rich daily life environment.

Although this idea in the real realization of has yet to be in-depth study, but in terms of Bridges, about 1000 m span is implemented, the world's biggest span suspension bridge as the tatara ohashi bridge in Japan for 2 890 m; The largest suspension bridge direction for the name of Japan (1991 m), roads and railways and the largest span bridge to the tsing ma bridge in Hong Kong (1377 m) of suspension Bridges. The world's earliest hyperbolic paraboloid cable roof is the famous American ray in the pavilion. In addition, fair, etc can all previous Olympic Games shows that the development of the steel structure of bridge. As in 1972 in Munich, Germany (cable network covering 74800 m2 stadium complex), Montreal, Canada in 1976, Moscow, 1980, 1984, Los Angeles, USA, 1988, Seoul, South Korea (120 m diameter gym and 93 m diameter fencing hall are cable dome), Barcelona, Spain in 1992 st. Joe gymnasium (128 m), the United States in 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia dome (186 m) x 235 m cable dome. 2000 main stadium in Sydney, Australia (110000, 220 m by 70 m of hyperbolic paraboloid shell).

The airport and hangar belong to large span structure, are basically adopts steel structure in engineering. Such as heathrow hangar (1, 2) should be a big project. And built in our country in recent years the capital hangar (2-153 - m (90 m) adopts three layer inclined put four pyramid grid node plate, welding ball rack, scale, its span is one of the best in the world, this is in the field of steel structure in our country and a great honour. The airport on the steel structure roof due to the construction of demand is higher, more colorful. Hong Kong airport, Malaysia airport are introduced large monomer net shell form.

At present, the domestic and international are popular a kind of wavy surface, tree bearing as well as the direct intersection nozzle-vessel junction nodes three-dimensional truss system. Look magnificent and beautiful. Shenzhen airport in China, the capital airport, Shanghai pudong airport is a typical example.



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