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钢结构表面缺陷的检测磁粉探伤的基本原理

发布时间:2015-12-17 10:23:18 浏览次数:523

外加磁场对工件(只能是铁磁性材料)进行磁化,被磁化后的工件上若不存在缺陷,则它各部位的磁特性基本一致,而存在裂纹、气孔或非金属物夹渣等缺陷时,由于它们会在工件上造成气隙或不导磁的间隙,使缺陷部位的磁阻大大增加,工件内磁力线的正常传播遭到阻隔,根据磁连续性原理,这时磁化场的磁力线就被迫改变路径而逸出工件,并在工件表面形成漏磁场。
The magnetic field of the workpiece (only ferromagnetic materials) magnetization, workpiece is magnetized if there is no defect, then its magnetic characteristics of each part of the basic agreement, and the existence of cracks, pores or non metal slag and other defects, because they will cause the workpiece gap in air gap magnetic or not the reluctance, defect position increases greatly, normal transmission lines within the workpiece by magnetic barrier, according to the principle of continuity, then the magnetic field lines are forced to change the path and escape from the workpiece, and the formation of leakage magnetic field on the surface of the workpiece.

 

 

 

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漏磁场的强度主要取决磁化场的强度和缺陷对于磁化场垂直截面的影响程度。利用磁粉就可以将漏磁场给予显示或测量出来,从而分析判断出缺陷的存在与否及其位置和大小。
The intensity of the magnetic field is mainly determined by the intensity of the magnetic field and the influence of the defect on the vertical cross section of the magnetic field. The magnetic particle can be used to display and measure the leakage magnetic field, so as to analyze the existence of the defect and its position and size.
将铁磁性材料的粉未撒在工件上,在有漏磁场的位置磁粉就被吸附,从而形成显示缺陷形状的磁痕,能比较直观地检出缺陷。这种方法是应用最早、最广的一种无损检测方法。
The powder of the ferromagnetic material is not scattered on the workpiece in the magnetic field of the magnetic leakage magnetic field is adsorbed, which forms the magnetic mark of the shape of the defect. This method is one of the earliest and most widely used nondestructive testing methods.
磁粉一般用工业纯铁或氧化铁制作,通常用四氧化三铁(Fe3O4)制成细微颗粒的粉末作为磁粉。磁粉可分为荧光磁粉和非荧光磁粉两大类,荧光磁粉是在普通磁粉的颗粒外表面涂上了一层荧光物质,使它在紫外线的照射下能发出荧光,主要的作用是提高了对比度,便于观察。磁粉检测又分干法和湿法两种:
General use of industrial pure iron powder or iron oxide production, usually with magnetite (Fe3O4) made of fine particles as magnetic powder. Magnetic powder can be divided into two kinds of fluorescent magnetic particle and non fluorescent magnetic particle, the fluorescent magnetic particle is a layer of fluorescent material coated on the surface of the particles, so that it can emit fluorescence under the irradiation of ultraviolet light, the main role is to improve the contrast, easy to observe. Magnetic particle inspection and two kinds of dry and wet method:
1.干法
1 dry process
—将磁粉直接撒在被测工件表面。为便于磁粉颗粒向漏磁场滚动,通常干法检测所用的磁粉颗粒较大,所以检测灵敏度较低。但是在被测工件不允许采用湿法与水或油接触时,如温度较高的试件,则只能采用干湿法。
- the magnetic particle is directly cast on the surface of the workpiece. In order to facilitate the magnetic particle to roll to the magnetic field, the magnetic particle particle used in dry method is usually used to detect the magnetic particle, so the detection sensitivity is lower. But when the workpiece is not allowed to use wet with water or oil contact, such as the higher temperature of the specimen, the only use of wet and dry method.
湿法 —将磁粉悬浮于载液(水或煤油等)之中形成磁悬液喷撒于被测工件表面,这时磁粉借助液体流动性较好的特点,能够比较容易地向微弱的漏磁场移动,同时由于湿法流动性好就可以采用比干法更加细的磁粉,使磁粉更易于被微小的漏磁场所吸附,因此湿法比干法的检测灵敏度高。
Wet - magnetic suspension is formed in the surface of the workpiece surface, which can be easily moved by the weak magnetic field, and the magnetic particle is more easily to be adsorbed on the magnetic field due to the fine magnetic particles.

 


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