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寿县合兴浅谈低层轻型钢结构装配式住宅体系

发布时间:2015-12-24 10:21:36 浏览次数:704

冷弯薄壁型钢结构装配式住宅体系是一种轻型钢结构体系,主要由墙体、楼盖、屋盖及维护结构组成,这种结构一般适用于三层以下的独立或联排住宅,其每个住宅单元的平面尺寸为:最大长度18m,宽度为12m;单层承重墙高度不超过3.3m,檐口高度不超过9m;屋面坡度取值宜在1:4~1:1范围内。
     冷弯薄壁型钢结构装配式住宅的基本构件只有U形(普通槽形)和C形(卷边槽形)两种截面形式。U形截面一般用作顶梁、底梁或边梁,C形截面一般用作梁柱构件,构件的金属材料厚度一般在0.46~2.46mm范围内,但顶梁、底梁、边梁和承重构件的厚度应不小于0.84mm。构件已经定型化,U形截面常用型号只有8种,C形截面常用型号只有5种,可见构件种类很少,无论设计还是制作与安装都是很方便的。另外,冷弯薄壁型钢构件的截面形状合理,材料利用率高,用钢量省,在澳大利亚,这种体系的用钢量约100kN/m2。
     构件连接的紧固件包括螺钉、普通钉子、射钉、拉铆钉、螺栓和扣件等。受力构件常用螺钉(采用自钻自攻螺钉和自攻螺钉)连接,自钻自攻螺钉用于0.84mm厚以上的钢板的连接,自攻螺钉仅用于石膏板等结构板材或0.84mm厚以下的钢板之间的连接,常用的自钻自攻螺钉或自攻螺钉规格只需3~5种。在结构的次要部位,可采用射钉、拉铆钉或扣件等紧固件,扣件连接还用于形成组合截面。轻钢楼盖或墙体通过锚栓与砌体或混凝土基础连接,普通钉子用于构件与木地梁的连接。
     楼盖由密梁和楼面板组成,在梁的端头套有边梁,楼面梁在墙上的支承时,必须有足够的支承长度。当楼面梁跨度超出3.5m时,应采取拉接措施加强梁的侧向稳定性。当需要在楼板上开洞时,楼板洞口周边应设置边梁。楼盖必须与混凝土基础、木地梁或承重墙可靠连接。楼盖及其构件的强度、刚度、稳定以及楼盖的振动均应满足设计要求。
     墙体结构由密柱和墙板组成,墙柱的两端套有底梁或顶梁,墙板为墙体提供侧向支撑作用,必要时应设置X形剪力支撑系统。所有承重墙门窗洞口上方必须设置过梁,过梁可采用箱形、工形或L形截面,其截面尺寸应符合设计要求。当抗震设防烈度为8度及其以上或最大风压为1.5kN/m2(标准值)以上时,应设置剪力墙和采取抗拔等拉接措施。墙体与基础或楼盖必须可靠连接,墙体及其构件的强度、刚度、稳定均应满足设计要求。
     屋盖也采用密梁体系,上铺屋面板,屋架由屋面斜梁和屋面横梁组成。屋架(横梁)与承重墙的顶梁、屋面板与屋架斜梁、端屋架与山墙顶梁、屋架斜梁与屋架横梁或屋脊构件都必须可靠连接,屋架横梁在支座处必须有足够的支承长度,为了保持屋架在安装和使用时的稳定性和整体性,屋架横梁和屋架斜梁均应设置水平支撑,在屋架横梁和斜梁之间还应设置斜支撑。当需要在屋面或天花板上开洞时,洞口周边应设置边梁。当抗震设防烈度为8度及其以上或最大风压为1.5kN/m2(标准值)以上时,屋盖通过檐口连接件与剪力墙可靠拉接。屋盖系统及其构件的强度、刚度和稳定均应满足设计要求。
     为了保证房屋具有良好的居住性能,应对底层楼面、外墙和屋面采取保温与隔热措施,如在轻钢骨架空腔内填充保温棉、喷射液体发泡材料或外贴泡沫隔热板材等;住宅的墙体、楼板和屋顶也宜采取吸音、隔声和消声措施,建筑围护结构还应采取措施防止水汽凝结现象的发生。
     用于承重结构的钢材,均采用Q345或Q390钢,当有可靠依据时,也可以采用其他牌号的钢材。保温材料采用玻璃纤维、聚胺酯板、岩棉板、挤塑板等轻质材料。防水材料可采用防水卷材、改性沥青、复合材料等。结构面板可采用定向板、胶合木(竹)板、石膏板、水泥纤维板、水泥木屑板等材料。屋面材料可采用沥青瓦、金属瓦、彩色水泥瓦等轻质材料。外墙饰面材料可采用金属挂板、饰面水泥木屑板、复合材料等。

Cold-formed thin-walled steel structure prefabricated housing system is a light steel structure system, mainly by the wall, floor, roof and maintenance structure, this structure is generally applicable to the following three independent or townhouse, each residential unit plane size: the maximum length of 18m 12m width; single load bearing wall height of not more than 3.3 m, eaves height of not more than 9m; roof slope value should be in the range of 1:4 to 1:1.
The basic components of the assembled housing of the cold formed thin-walled steel structure are only U shape (ordinary groove shape) and C (roll edge groove) two cross sections. A U-shaped cross-section is commonly used as a top beam, a bottom beam and side beam, a C-shaped cross section is commonly used as a member of beam and column, thickness of the metal material of the component generally in the range of 0.46 to 2.46mm, but top beam and bottom thickness of the beam, side beam and bearing component should be not less than 0.84 mm. Component has been finalized, U - shaped section of the commonly used models of only 8, C - shaped section of the commonly used models of only 5, visible component is very small, regardless of design or production and installation are very convenient. Also reasonable section shape of the cold-formed thin-walled steel members, high utilization rate of raw materials, use of steel,, in Australia, the system of steel quantity about 100kN/m2.
The fasteners are connected with a screw, an ordinary nail, a nail, a rivet, a bolt and a fastener. By force of commonly used components screw (the self drilling tapping screws and self tapping screw connection, self drilling tapping screws are used to 0.84 mm above the thick steel plate connection, self tapping screw is only used for the connection between gypsum board and other structural board, or 0.84 mm thick steel plate, commonly used self drilling tapping screw self tapping screw specifications are just 3 ~ 5. In the structure of the secondary parts, can be used to nail, pull rivets or fasteners and other fasteners, fastener connection is also used to form a combination of cross section. Light steel floor or wall connected by anchor bolt and masonry or concrete foundation, common nails for connecting components and wooden beams.
Floor from dense beam and floor panel, at the beam end caps with edge beam, floor beam in the wall of the support must have enough bearing length. When the span of the floor beam is beyond 3.5m, the lateral stability of the beam should be strengthened. When the openings in the floor when the floor should be set around the edge beam. The floor must be reliably connected with concrete foundation, wooden beam or load-bearing walls. The floor and the components of strength, stiffness, stability and vibration of the floor should meet the design requirements.
Wall structure is composed of dense column and wall, wall columns sleeved at both ends of the bottom beam or beam, wall panels for wall provide lateral support, if necessary should be set X shaped shear support system. All load-bearing wall top of the door and window openings must set the lintel and lintel can use box, industry and trade or L-shaped cross section, the section size should comply with the design requirements. When the seismic fortification intensity is 8 degree and above or the maximum wind pressure is 1.5kN/m2 (standard value), we should set up the shear wall and take the anti pull and so on. The wall and the foundation floor or wall and its components must be reliable connection, strength, stiffness and stability should meet the design requirements.
The roof also adopts dense beam system on the roof, roof and roof beam by roof beam. Roof truss (beam) and load-bearing walls of the roof, roof panel and roof beam, end of the roof and the gable roof, roof truss beam and truss beam or roof member must be reliable connection and roof beam on the bearing must have enough bearing length, in order to keep the roof in the installation and use of stability and integrity, roof beams and roof beam shall be set level of support, in between the roof beam and the oblique beam should also set the diagonal brace. When on the roof or ceiling openings, the hole should be set around the edge beam. When the seismic fortification intensity is 8 degrees and above, or the maximum pressure for 1.5kN/m2 (standard value) above. The roof eaves through connection piece and the shear wall reliable connection. The strength, stiffness and stability of the roof system and its members should meet the design requirements.
In order to ensure that the house has good live performance, deal with the underlying floor, wall and roof to take heat preservation and insulation measures, such as in the light steel skeleton cavities filled cotton insulation, spray liquid foaming material and paste foam heat insulation board and other; residential wall, floor and roof should also take sound-absorbing, sound insulation and noise reduction measures, building envelope should also take measures to prevent the occurrence of water vapor condensation phenomenon.
For load-bearing structure of the steel, are using Q345 or Q390 steel, when there is a reliable basis, can also be used in other grades of steel. Thermal insulation material made of glass fiber, polyurethane board, rock wool board, plastic board and other lightweight materials. Waterproof material can be used waterproof coiled material, modified asphalt, composite materials, etc.. The structure panel can adopt the material such as the directional board, Jiao Hemu (bamboo) board, gypsum board, cement fiber board, cement sawdust board, etc.. Roofing material can be used as lightweight materials such as asphalt tile, metal tile, color cement tile and so on. Exterior wall facing material can be used for metal plate, veneer, wood veneer, composite material and so on.

 

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