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寿县合兴浅谈钢结构的发展历史

发布时间:2016-6-12 10:30:45 浏览次数:581

中国是最早用铁建造结构的国家之一,据明朝《南诏野史》记载,东汉明帝(公元58~75年)时在云南省景东地区的澜沧江上建有兰津桥,“以铁索系南北为桥”;在清朝《小方壶斋舆地丛钞•云南考略》中亦有同样记载。


China is the earliest iron built one of the structure of the country, according to the Ming Dynasty the Nanzhao unofficial history "records, the Emperor Mingdi of the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 58 to 75 years) in Yunnan Jingdong region of Lancang River to build a LAN Jin Qiao," bridge "; in the Qing Dynasty," Xiao Fang vegetarian pot geography Cong notes - Yunnan test slightly, "also recorded by cable on the South and North.


现存的最早的铁链桥为云南省永平县与保山市之间跨越澜沧江的霁虹桥,建于明朝成化年间(1465~1487年),桥总长113.4米,净跨57.3米,宽3.7米,底部承重铁链16根(现存14根)。四川省泸定县大渡河上的泸定桥,净跨100米,宽2.7米,建成于清朝康熙四十五年(1706年)。


Extant earliest iron chain bridge between Yongping County of Yunnan Province and Baoshan City across the Lancang River Ji Hongqiao, built in the Ming Dynasty Chenghua years (1465 - 1487), bridge length of 113.4 meters, 57.3 m span, 3.7 meters wide, at the bottom of the bearing chain 16 (14 extant root). Luding County of Sichuan Province on the Dadu River of the Luding Bridge, with a clear span of 100 meters, 2.7 meters wide, built in the Qing Dynasty Kangxi 45 years (1706).


此外,尚有许多纪念性建筑,如现存的、建于南汉大宝十年(967年)的广州光孝寺东铁塔,共7层,塔身高6.35米;另有建于963年的西铁塔,现仅存3层;宋朝在现湖北省当阳县建造的玉泉寺铁塔(1061年),塔身13层高17.9米(见彩图),和 在山东省济宁市铁塔寺建造的9层铁塔(1105年),塔身高13米。这些建筑物表明了中国古代冶金和营造技术的高度水平。


In addition, there are still many monuments, such as the existing, built in the South Han Bao ten years (1967) of Guangzhou Guangxiaosi temple in the East Tower, a total of 7 layers, 6.35 meters tall tower; another was built in 963 years of West Tower, is now the only remaining 3 layer; Song Dynasty in present Dangyang County of Hubei Province built Yuquan temple tower (1061), 13 storey tower 17.9 meters (see pictures), and built in, tower temple, Jining City, Shandong Province, nine storey tower (1105), tower height 13 meters. These buildings show a high level of Chinese ancient metallurgy and construction technology.


在西方国家,第一个完全用铸铁建造的桥梁于1779年出现在英国科尔布鲁克代尔,跨长30.5米。18世纪末,工业革命兴起,冶金技术和建筑事业随之发展,出现了生熟铁组合结构。19世纪20~30年代出现了铆钉连接,50年代和60年代相继发明转炉和平炉冶炼工艺,随着轧制型材的使用,钢铁结构应用范围不断扩大,在结构体系、跨度和高度方面都有较大发展,如巴黎埃菲尔铁塔。


In western countries, the first complete cast iron bridge built in 1779 in the United Kingdom Colebrook Dyer, 30.5 meters long span. At the end of eighteenth Century, the industrial revolution, metallurgy and construction industry will be the development of students appeared wrought iron composite structure. In the 19th century, 20 to 30 years the rivet connection, in the 1950s and 1960s have invented peace furnace smelting process of converter, with the use of profile rolling, steel structure application scope expands unceasingly, in architecture, span and height have larger development, such as the Eiffel Tower in Paris.


20世纪以来,钢材品种的增加,制造方法的改善,计算理论和设计规范的发展,使钢结构在工业与民用房屋以及其他工程结构中得到更广泛的应用。如西尔斯大厦是最高的高层房屋之一;英国亨伯桥是至今跨度最大的钢铁桥。


Since twentieth Century, the increase of steel varieties, the improvement of manufacturing methods, the development of computational theory and design specifications, the steel structure has been widely used in industrial and civil buildings and other engineering structures. If the Sears Building is one of the tallest high-rise building; the Humber bridge in England is by far the largest span steel bridge.




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