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浅谈国外高层及超高层钢结构

发布时间:2016-8-29 10:16:21 浏览次数:609

由于人类文化生活不断提高,对高层、大跨度修建的请求也就越来越高。而钢构造自身具有自重轻,强度高,施工快等共同优点,因而对高层、大跨度,尤其是超高层、超大跨度,选用钢构造更是十分理想。现在国际上最高,最大的构造选用的都是钢构造,而历届奥运会的场馆也多选用钢构造。国际上现在已经建成的几个纯钢构造修建为现在国际上最高的超高层修建,它们是:

 

 

 

 

 1931年建成的102层、高381m的美国纽约帝国大厦(1969年以前一直是最高的);

 

 1969年建成的110层、高417m的美国纽约国际贸易中心(南北两座);

 

 1970年建成的110层、高443m的美国芝加哥西尔斯大厦;

 

    1996年建成的高450m的马来西亚双塔石油大厦(KLCC,号称现在国际最高,但美国的西尔斯大厦有贰言);


 巨型钢构造为高层或超高层修建的一种簇新系统,它是为了满意特殊功用或归纳功用而发生的。它具有杰出的修建适应性和潜在的高效构造功能,是一种很有开展的构造。如日本千叶县43层、高180m的NEC大楼,该修建内部安置大开口和大空间庭院,其巨型构造是由四根巨型构造柱和四个巨型的空间桁架梁构成的巨型空间桁架系统。经剖析,这种系统具有极强的抗推刚度。


另一例是德国法兰克福1997年建成的商业银行新大楼,63层、高298.74m,也是欧洲最高的一栋超高层修建。该修建平面为边长60m的等边三角形,其构造系统是以三角形极点的三个独立框筒为“巨型柱”,经过八层楼高的钢框架为“巨型梁”衔接而围成的巨型筒系统,具有极好的全体效应和抗推刚度,其间“巨响梁”发生了无穷的“螺旋箍”效应。


第三例是日本拟建的动力智能大厦(DIB-200),高800m,地上200层,地下7层,总修建面积150万m2,由12个巨型单元体构成。每个单元体是一个直径50m、高50层(200m)的框筒柱,1~100层设4个柱,101~150层设3个柱,151~200层设1个柱,每50层设置一道巨型梁。构造上设有自动控制系统,进一步削弱地震反应。香港汇丰银行也归于一巨型钢构大厦,是诺尔曼。福尔特规划的。

 

 

 

Due to the continuous improvement of human cultural life, the high rise, large span of the construction of the request is also getting higher and higher. And steel structure has light weight, high strength, rapid construction speed and so on common advantages, thus of high-rise, long-span, especially high-rise and large span, selection of steel is very ideal. Now the international highest, the largest structure chosen are steel, and the Olympic Games venues with steel structure. Several pure steel structures which have been built in the world are now the highest building in the world:
Built in 1931, the 102 storey, high 381m of the United States, New York The Empire State Building (1969 years ago has been the highest);
Built in 1969, the 110 layer, high 417m of the United States New York International Trade Center (North and south two);
Built in 1970, the 110 layer, high 443m of the United States, Chicago Sears Building;
Built in 1996, high 450m Malaysia's Petronas Towers Petroleum Building (KLCC, known as now the highest, but the Sears Tower in the United States have demur);
Giant steel made high-rise or super high-rise building a brand new system, it is in order to satisfy the special function or inductive function. It has excellent construction adaptability and potential high efficiency construction function. Such as Japan Chiba 43 storeys, a 180m superheight NEC's building, the building housed inside the large openings and courtyard space, the mega structure is composed of four giant space truss beams and four huge structural column of mega space truss system. By analyzing, this system has a very strong anti push rigidity.
Another example is the new building in Frankfurt, Germany, built in 1997, the 63 storey commercial bank, high 298.74m, but also the highest building in Europe, a super high-rise. The construction plane to 60m length of the equilateral triangle, the structural system is to triangle pole three separate frame tube "mega column", after eight storey steel frame for "mega beam convergence and surrounded the giant tube system, all with excellent effect and anti push rigidity, during the" bang beam occurred endless "spiral hoop" effect.
Third case is Japan's proposed power Intelligent Building (DIB-200), high 800m, 200 floors above the ground, 7 floors underground, with a total construction area of 1 million 500 thousand m2, 12 giant cell bodies. Each unit body is a diameter 50m, high 50 layer (200m) frame tube column, 1 to 100 layers of 4 columns, 101 to 150 layers of 3 columns, 151 to 200 layers of 1 columns, each 50 layers of a giant beam. An automatic control system is set up to further weaken the seismic response. Hongkong HSBC also attributed to a giant steel building, Norman. The planning of the.

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